Romania: detailed travel guide

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Romania is a country located in the south-east of Europe. It covers an area of 239 thousand square kilometers. The Carpathian Mountains and part of the Black Sea coast are located on the territory of the state. The ratio of mountainous and lowland areas in the country is almost equal. The number of people living in Romania for 2022 amounted to almost 19.6 million people. The country ranks eighth in Europe in terms of population. Ninety percent are ethnic Romanians, among other numerous nationalities, Hungarians, Gypsies, Germans stand out. The majority of the population professes Orthodoxy, less than 10% are Catholics, Protestants, Muslims.

According to the Constitution adopted in 1991, Romania became a parliamentary republic. The Legislative Assembly consists of two chambers: the upper, the Senate, and the lower, the Chamber of Deputies. Direct secret presidential elections are held every five years. Since 2014, this elected position has been held by Klaus Iohannis.

Romania is one of the most beautiful European countries. The Carpathian Mountains are located on a third of the territory of the state. The mountain peaks here reach a height of 2600 meters, and some ski slopes rise up to 2100 meters. There are about two dozen famous ski resorts in Romania. Part of the border runs along the Danube River. The country also has its own Black Sea coast, where there are many resort areas. There are almost 1,500 mineral springs and more than 150 balneoclimatic resorts in Romania, on the territory of which there are mud lakes and mofettes. There are many churches and monasteries in the country, most of which have a centuries-old history. Romania is rich in national parks, nature reserves and nature reserves.

Recent historical studies claim that people in today’s Romania lived 300 thousand years ago. Shortly before our era, some tribes who migrated from the Center of Europe and from the Black Sea settled here. Mixing with the people who already lived here, several new tribes of Thracians appear — Dacians and Getae. They also created their own culture and the state of Dacia. Descriptions of Dacians and Getae have been preserved. They were presented as courageous, freedom-loving people, but unstoppable in their passions and desires. There was also such a trait as pessimism in their characters. No wonder funerals became one of the main holidays, one should be happy for someone who finally disappeared from this cruel and disgusting world.

Due to the strengthening of Rome and the Roman claims to these lands, Dacia in 106 AD after the conquest turned into one of the Roman provinces. This happened under the Emperor Trojan, during whose reign the Roman Empire maximized its territory. A lot of people from all over the Roman Empire moved here: it was necessary to settle the lands, build cities, roads, border fortifications. But a little over a hundred years passed, and in 271 the Roman period was over. Historians have not yet been able to find out the real reasons why the Romans voluntarily left Dacia. But an echo of this time remained in the modern name. The word “Romania” has a connection with the Latin Roma, meaning Rome.

After the departure of the Romans, almost primeval darkness is established on the territory of the country. And this period lasts almost a millennium. The following centuries are characterized by an era of great migration of peoples. Located on the path of the northern and southern peoples, the country is influenced by many tribes. Huns, Goths, Avars, Bulgarians and other peoples have visited here. Since the VI century, Slavs settled on the territory of modern Romania, 300 years later, part of the land was under the rule of the Hungarians.

The appearance of the Romanian principalities dates back to the X–XII century. Wallachia and Moldova are part of the historical territory of the country, located in the south and east of Romania. It was a time of feudal rule: at the head of each principality was a prince surrounded by nobles and close courtiers who owned local lands. Serfdom has been developed. For several centuries, the peoples of the country had to fight against the neighbors of Hungary and Poland, as well as the Ottoman Empire, which in the XV century seized the camp and demanded constant tribute payments. Up to the XVIII century, in fact, the government of the country was in the hands of local boyars, who wove cunning intrigues with the Turks. Periodically, the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldova jointly opposed foreign interference. For example, this happened under Mihai the Brave in Wallachia and Peter Raresh in Moldova.

A new stage in the history of the state begins with the arrival of the XIX century, when in 1821 their princes reigned on the Romanian thrones. Russia has also shown interest in the Romanian principalities. Peter I tried to establish the first friendly contacts . Catherine the Great was also interested in the Romanian principalities and tried to find a sphere of influence of Russia on Romania. After the Russian-Turkish War, Russia formally began to rule the Romanian principalities. At this time, the foundation of the main Romanian state takes place. Romania received its final liberation from the Ottoman yoke in the 70s, when an alliance was concluded between it and Russia. Since 1871, the country has been called the Kingdom of Romania.

The next fifty years of the country’s development are distinguished by some important steps: significant industries are being created, railways are being built, the first constitution in the country’s history has been adopted, leading state institutions are developing. As a result of the conclusion of some agreements, Romania at the beginning of the XX century receives Transylvania, Bukovina and parts of the Banat and Dobrudja.

As a result of mismanagement, the country was dragged into World War II on the side of Nazi Germany. In 1944, when the preponderance of forces became clear, Romania joined the opposite side. After the victory of the Russian army, the development of Romania followed the socialist path. The king was forced to give up the throne. This is how the Romanian People’s Republic appeared. For the next two decades, the country has been developing under the leadership of the Communist Party of the USSR. Collectivization of the entire agriculture is being carried out, planning is being introduced. In the 50s, Romania claimed its personal right to the path to socialism and sovereignty from the Soviet Union.

In August 1965, when the Communist Party was headed by Nicolae Ceausescu, the state officially became a socialist republic. At this time, a policy of a hard course and a merciless war with the opposition begins to be carried out inside the country. High goals have been set in industrialization, which has somewhat harmed the Romanian economy. The collapse of the economic sector led to a coup in 1989. Ceausescu was removed from office and executed. In 1990, elections were held, as a result of which a candidate from the People’s Salvation Front became the head of the country. Having failed to bring Romania out of the crisis, the party surrenders power in new elections to Democratic forces. And in 2000, representatives of the Social Democrats and nationalists took the helm of the country. Romania has joined NATO since 2004 and has been a member of the European Community since 2007.

To date, Romania has become one of the most dynamically developing countries of the European Union. After joining the EU, the country received more foreign investment and created tens of thousands of new jobs. At the beginning of 2017, the minimum wage was raised in the country, which amounted to 320 euros. It is planned to reduce the tax on individuals from 2018. And if today it is 16% of income, then it is supposed to stop at 10%.

Today, Romania ranks eleventh among the countries of the European Union in terms of economic development. Perhaps this is not such a great achievement. But if we recall to what poverty the country reached in the late eighties, then an economic breakthrough will become obvious. At the end of the XX century, Romania lived in a regime of severe austerity, there was no electricity, ration cards were in circulation, the outflow of the population began. The construction of a new power does not always go smoothly, and until now part of the Romanian population is in distress. But the general standard of living of people is gradually changing.

The country’s industry is represented by the oil and gas industries. There are deposits of various natural resources in Romania. There is a clear balance between industry and agriculture, which helps to have inexpensive food and manufactured goods. Various types of passenger transport are also developed in Romania: land, air and water. In recent years, tourist routes within the country have become increasingly popular. The ski resorts of the Carpathians and hotels on the Black Sea coast are known all over the world. A network of resorts on mud lakes, thermal waters and mineral springs is also in demand.

Romania has its own Academy of Sciences, established back in 1879 and provided with a network of research institutes, scientific societies and schools. Secondary education accommodates three stages: preschool and two secondary. After school, education can be continued in vocational training institutions, craft schools, universities.

Climate and weather in Romania

In most of Romania, the continental type of climate prevails, which is usually formed under the influence of large volumes of land on the atmosphere. These places are characterized by very warm summers, cold winters, and the rapid change of spring and autumn. The part of the country located on the Black Sea coast is influenced by a temperate maritime climate due to the close presence of a large water area. Therefore, winter in this region is milder than in the rest of the territory. The mountainous regions of Romania are characterized by a subalpine type of climate.

Winter in Romania is often snowy and cold. There are snowfalls, often with winds. But on the Black Sea coast, the winter weather is milder and wetter. The March cold is not too different from the February. Warming in the country begins in the first decade of April. And although there are frosts at night, but the thermometer is steadily creeping up. The real spring in Romania lasts a little more than a month, and by the middle of May, the warm summer weather begins to set in. Summer is sunny and hot, there are often showers with thunderstorms.

Autumn days are gloomy and rainy. The warm September weather in October abruptly changes to windy and dank. At the same time, the first snow falls at the end of the month, and a permanent white cover is established in November almost throughout Romania, with the exception of the seaside coast in the southern part of the country. The temperature minimum was recorded here in 1942 and was -38 °C, the maximum of 44.5 °C fell in the summer of 1951. The western and central parts of Romania receive the most precipitation per year, in other regions the weather is drier due to the Carpathian Mountains, which do not always allow winds from the Atlantic to penetrate into these areas.

Let’s look at the weather in Romania in more detail by month.

The January temperature in Bucharest is about 1 °C during the day and -3 °C at night. It is colder in ski resorts, up to -5 °C in the daytime, and up to -10 °C in the dark. The weather on the slopes of the mountains is comfortable, there are few winds, so holidays in Romania in winter are becoming more popular and in demand. Although the January winds and humidity do not have a comfortable rest on the seashore, but many health resorts and sanatoriums in Romania work all year round. The daytime temperature in these places stays within 4 °C, the night temperature stops at 0 °C.

February is the most successful month to relax in ski resorts with excellent trails and hotels. The temperature in the mountainous part of the country during this period varies between -1 °C during the day and -4 °C at night. There is practically no windy weather, which makes your stay here pleasant and comfortable. Snow cover with a height of up to 50 cm stands until March. Bucharest is characterized by a temperature 2-3 degrees higher, while in the coastal zone thermometers are kept at 4-5 °C during the day, and at night they drop to 1 °C.

March is quite a changeable season for Romania, and although the first signs of spring are already appearing, snow often falls. The weather at the ski resort is still conducive to rest. Daytime temperature stays within 0 °C, night temperature drops to -5 °C. The snow cover lies until mid-May. The capital is characterized by warming up to 11 °C, coupled with night cold spells. The Black Sea coast does not please with comfort. It’s quite windy and humid here. Daytime temperature reaches 8 °C, night temperature decreases to 2 °C. The water near the shore begins to warm up to 13 °C.

By the end of April, the thermometer may show up to 15 °C. This period is characterized by warm days and cool nights. This is the weather in the capital, so residents and guests of the city in the evening must take warm clothes with them. The season ends at the ski resorts, the snow is melting more and more actively. The average daytime temperature here is 2 °C, the night temperature is 2-3 degrees lower. At resorts it is up to 7 °C, and the water has not warmed up yet and remains cool.

Already in May, warm summer weather comes to Romania. At the end of the month, the thermometer readings stop at around 25 °C. The weather in the capital during this period is slightly colder by 2-3 degrees, at night it can drop to 13 ° C. The bathing season is opened so far only by the bravest and hardened, since the water temperature off the coast at the end of May is still 16-18 °C. The heat comes to the ski resorts as well. Here in the afternoon to 16 °C

May ends quickly, and summer comes to Romania. June in the country is characterized by comfortable weather. The maximum daytime temperature for Bucharest is around 27 °C, while at night it drops to 17 °C. The weather on the Black Sea coast is similar. The water warms up to 21 °C, which allows you to open the beach season. The temperature during the day and at night in the ski resorts is 19 °C and 13 °C, respectively. June is considered a comfortable month for swimming and excursions. The heat hasn’t come yet. You can opt for a beach holiday or treatment at a balneological resort.

The July temperature is already distinguished by hot days, when the thermometer in the capital rises to an average of 29 °C. The nights are warm with a temperature of 19 °C. Although the weather on the Black Sea coast is similar to that on the rest of the country, but the heat is easier to bear here. The water has already warmed up to 24 °C. On the slopes of the mountains during this period of summer about 22 °C during the day and 19 °C at night.

The weather in August continues to be hot, as in July. Daytime indicators in Bucharest stand at around 25-30 °C, at night it can be cooler — up to 19 °C. The Black Sea coast of Romania pleases with hot days and a water temperature of about 25 °C. The subalpine climate of the mountainous part of the country during this period is also characterized by hot and humid weather. In addition to visiting the usual resorts, in August you can plan a vacation in Romanian hospitals on the seashore.

The velvet season on the Black Sea coast of Romania begins in September. This is the most suitable time of rest for those who do not like hot weather and a large influx of tourists. The daytime temperature at sea resorts averages 24 °C, at night it drops to 17-18 °C. The water near the shore continues to be warm enough for swimming — 22-23 °C. The weather in Bucharest is almost the same, it gets fresher at night. There is little rain in September, so bathing is pleasant to combine with trips and excursions.

In October, a cold snap begins throughout the country. If the daytime temperature stays within 17 °C, the night temperature already drops to 11 °C. The velvet season in the towns on the Black Sea is over, the water warms up only to 17 °C. There is not much rain in October, but at the end of the month the temperature may drop sharply, and the first snowfalls occur.

Already in November, the approach of winter is clearly felt in Romania. The average daytime temperature now does not rise more than 5 °C in most areas, in popular Black Sea resorts the thermometer still stays at 11-12 °C during the day and 8-9 ° C at night. But cold winds from the sea can overshadow any walk. A little warmer, 7-8 ° C and at ski resorts, where preparations are underway for the start of the season.

December in Romania is the beginning of the ski season. The snow cover is almost established, daytime temperatures are within 0 ° C, and at night they drop to -2 °C. And if the influx of tourists is now beginning in mountainous areas, then the seaside towns are empty, there are few visitors. During the day, the air here warms up to 7 °C, at night it cools down to 3 °C. In the Romanian capital, it is not much warmer now, on average about 3 °C during the day and 0°C at night.

Cities and regions

Administratively, according to the Constitution, Romania is divided into 41 zhudets. This is the name of the administrative-territorial units of the first level, which, in turn, consist of municipalities and communes. Municipalities are cities where more than 15 thousand people live. A smaller locality is usually called a commune, they may consist of several villages. There is also a separate national municipality — this is the capital of Romania, the city of Bucharest.

According to the regulations of the European Union, there are 8 development regions on the territory of Romania, which are only statistical counting zones.

Over the years, Romania has distinguished 9 historical regions, each of which has its own interesting history, culture, architectural monuments:

  • Transylvania
  • Wallachia (Oltenia and Muntenia)
  • Dobrudja
  • Krishana
  • Banat
  • Bukovina
  • Maramures
  • Moldova
  • Transylvania

This region is located in the north-west of Romania. The most impressive structures in these places are ancient castles that resemble fairy-tale palaces. Moreover, in one of them lived the most famous vampire in the world — Count Dracula, in the world Prince Vlad Tepes. A folk hero and a terrible ruler — and all in one bottle — has become a real tourist brand of Romania. Therefore, it is simply impossible to come to Transylvania and not visit Bran Castle. There are many other places to see in this area of the country: ancient cities with narrow cobbled streets, high Gothic cathedrals, ancient monasteries are good. Ski resorts are in demand from modern places. And also nature, wonderful Romanian nature: mountains, waterfalls, caves, forests and rivers, because of which Transylvania is rightfully called Eastern European Switzerland.

In Transylvania there are the ancient cities of Brasov and Sibiu, many Saxon settlements. In the east there is the only lake of St. Anna in the European part of the continent, which appeared as a result of volcanic activity thousands of years ago. The southern part of the region is famous for the Deva Fortress, the Retezat National Park, and the Hunedoara Castle. In the northern part, you can see many picturesque villages where people from Hungary, Germany and other countries live.


Wallachia is located between the foothills of the Carpathians and the Danube. Even in ancient times, it was divided into two districts, which today are called Oltenia and Muntenia. The most important cities of Romania are located in Wallachia: Bucharest, Pitesti, Craiova and others.

Bucharest is the center of Romania, the capital and the main city. More than 9% of the country’s population or more than 2 million people live here. Pitesti is famous for its flower festivals, musical fountains and a large automobile enterprise. The city of Craiova is rich in historical monuments, there are many ancient cathedrals, palaces, squares.

Among other interesting places in Wallachia is Lake Vidraru, which appeared during the construction of a hydroelectric power station on the Argesh River. The most dangerous road in the world is the Transfegerash pass, which is located between Wallachia and Transylvania. Famous ski resorts such as Poiana Brasov, Predyal and others are located in this historical region. Wallachia is known as the land of Gypsy culture, the largest in this region and the world.


This ancient province is located in the south-east of the country between the Black Sea and the Danube. The territory of Dobrudja is 25 square kilometers, where 1 million people live. This Black Sea coast of Romania is famous for a large number of seaside towns, resort towns, sanatoriums and hospitals. Among the most attractive places in the region, the main ones are the cities of Constanta, the largest seaport in Romania, and Tulcea, an ancient city on seven hills. Dobrudja has many museums of Greco-Roman antiquity.

Tourists are also interested in caves located on the territory of Dobrudja with unique fauna and flora. On the coast, not far from Constanta, there are many vineyards where the ingredients for the local delicious wine are grown. Nearby is also the “Temple of Dionysus” — a large tourist center, where excursions are combined with tasting of strong drinks. And, of course, there are many cozy cafes and restaurants in Dobrudja, where various fish dishes are prepared.


The historical region of Crisana is located on the western border of Romania next to Hungary. The largest and most iconic city in this area is Arad, whose history began in the XII century. The amazing architecture of the city is represented by ancient buildings, many of which are made in various architectural styles. The City Hall, the Senate Palace, the Turkish fortress, the Philharmonic Hall and other buildings will interest many tourists. Not far from the border is the town of Oradea, most of the buildings of which are made in the Viennese Sezession style. There are many protected places in Romania on the territory of Crisana: underground lakes, caves, glaciers, canyons. There is a Bear Cave in the Bihor Mountains, in which the remains of an ancient bear that died out 15 thousand years ago were found.


Banat is located in the west of Romania. There are many beautiful natural landscapes and impressive views. The largest city in the region is Timisoara, the main attraction of which is the Metropolitan Cathedral. The temple rises 96 meters and has 11 towers. There are many other ancient buildings and museums in the city. The Caras Gorge National Park is located in Banat. The region is also famous for local wineries that produce fine wines. On the territory of the Banat there are beautiful pristine lakes, mountain gorges and caves, waterfalls.


This ancient district of Romania is located in the northern part of the country. Most of the territory here is covered with lush forests, mountain ranges with rivers. The central city of the region is Suceava, where part of the ancient fortress has been preserved. Medieval buildings and museums attract many tourists. The famous Bukovina monasteries, which stand out for their non-standard design, are also mandatory to visit. According to local traditions, the monasteries of Voronets, Suchevina, Moldovica, Arbor are painted with frescoes outside, which gives them an unusual appearance and attracts many tourists. It will also be interesting that each monastery has its own predominant color. For example, for Moldovitsa it is a yellow shade, for Voronets it is blue, and Arbor is painted with rainbow colors. The Ceahlau National Park is also located in Bukovina.


In the north of Romania lies the ancient region of Maramures, located in the center between hills and mountains. There are many villages with ancient traditions and crafts on the territory of the region. These regions are famous for their potters and carpenters, no wonder there is a second name of the region — “the land of wood”. On the territory of Maramuresh, wooden churches of incredible beauty have been built with tall sharp spires that stick into the sky like spokes. These objects are included in the UNESCO heritage. Wooden decorations of houses and gates with traditional Romanian patterns will also cause surprise. Maramuresh cities will cause no less admiration. The largest of them, Sighet and Baia Mare, have many interesting sights.


In the eastern part of Romania is the ancient region of Moldova, distinguished by its natural beauty, amazing history and folk folklore. The cultural capital of this region is the city of Iasi, where there are many Orthodox churches. The most famous monument of Iasi is the Church of the Three Saints, dating back about 400 years. In April, Moldova hosts a festival of folk music and dance in Radeutsa. August is famous for its folk music festivals in the city of Dureu, and in Iasi in September there is a holiday in honor of the harvest.


Romania: travel guide, weather, cities and regions
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Romania: travel guide, weather, cities and regions
Travel guide to rest in Romania: sights worth visiting for tourists, what every tourist should know
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